The Painting gallery has 2 main sections viz., Indian Miniatures and Bengal School of Art. The display in the gallery has been organized in a chronological order.
Indian Miniatures: This section contains a substantial number of miniature paintings ranging from Persian, Mughals, Provincial Mughals, Deccan, Rajasthani, Pahari and Company School of Paintings.
Bengal School of Art: It contains the masterpieces from the nineteenth and twentieth century that belong to the Neo-Bengal School of Painting like Rabanindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Sunayani Devi, Asit Halder, Ishwari Prasad, Abdur Rehman Chugtai, and Jamini Roy. All these have been made using water colour. Besides these, Pata-Chitra, certain lithographs and some of the oil paintings of 20th Century Bengal are also on display here.